The Divine Names

The Divine Names

 The following is a partial presentation of an article by A. Beweley.

THE DIVINE NAMES RELATED TO HUMAN EXISTENCE

Al-Mawjud:The Existing

Allah possesses real existence without beginning or end. The existence of everything else is derived fromHis existence. "But the actions of those who reject are like a mirage in the desert. A thirsty man thinks it is water, but when he reaches it, he finds it to be nothing at all, but he finds (wajada) Allah there. He will pay him his account in full." (24:39)

Al- Ka'in: The One Who Is

Allah is Existing, firm, realized. He is Being. Ka'in is derived from the verb kana  (to be), usually connected with other attributes, as: "Allah has knowledge of everything. (lit. Allah is Knowing of everything)" (33:40)

Ath-Thabit: The One Whose Existence is Firm

Allah is the One whose existence is confirmed, enduring, lasting, substantial, and definite, whereas our existence is ephemeral and transitory.

Al-Haqq: The Truly Real

The Truth, the Real, the Really-existing, He whose existence and divinity are true, the One who creates according to the requirements of wisdom, justice, right, rightness, the Necessarily-existing by His own Essence, He whose existence is undeniable. Every reality exists from His essence and nothing has any intrinsic reality except Him. Al-Haqq is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "That is because Allah - He is the Truth, and what you call upon besides Him is falsehood Allah is theAll-High, the Most Great." (31:29) "On that Day Allah will pay them in full what is due to them, and they will know that Allah is the Clear Truth." (24:25) "That is because Allah is the Real and gives life to the dead and has power over all things and the Hour is coming without any doubt and Allah will raise up allthose in the graves." (22:6)


THE DIVINE NAMES RELATED TO ETERNITY


Al-Qadim: The Timelessly Eternal

The Timelessly or Beginninglessly Eternal, the opposite of muhdath or hadith (that which came into existence after not having been). Al-Qadim has no beginning or is before the beginning. He is outside linear time.

Al-Azal: The Pre-Eternal

Relating to pre-eternity, existing without any prior nonexistence and without any beginning.

Al-Awwal, Al-Akhir: The First and the Last

Al-Akhir is He who remains after all His creatures have perished. Al-Awwal is the First, preceding all others. Al-Awwal and Al-Akhir are two of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is the First and the Last and the Outward and the Inward." (57:3) The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, "...Allah, You are the First, for there was nothing before You, and You are the Last, for there is nothing after You, and you are the Outward, for there is nothing above You, and You are the Inward, for there is nothing beyond You. Remove our debt, and relieve us from poverty."

Al-Baqi: The Abiding

The second dimension of divine eternity along with Al-Qadim. He will not cease to be. He is the One whose existence has no end. He is Lasting, Perpetual, Endless. Al-Baqi is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
"Allah is better and longer lasting." (20:72) "Everyone who is on it will pass away. And the Face of your Lord will remain, Master of Majesty and Generosity." (55:24-25)

Ad-Da’im: The Everlasting

The Everlasting, enduring endlessly, the One who does not perish.

Al-Abadi: The Post-Eternal

The Always enduring, He who has no end and will never cease to be, the Everlasting.

As-Sarmadi: The Constant

The Continuous, constant; the One who continues endlessly, without any interruption, having neither beginning nor end, and the One who can bring a constant state about. Say: "What do you really think? If Allah made it permanent night for you till the Day of Rising, what god is there other than Allah to bring you light? Do you not then hear?" Say: "What do you really think? If Allah made it permanent day for you till the Day of Rising, what god is there other than Allah to bring you night to rest in? Do you not then see?"(28:71-72)

Al-Warith: The Inheritor

The One who inherits and continues after all others have ceased to be; thus all returns to Him. He is the true owner of all. Al-Warith is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "It is We who will inherit the earth and all those on it and. They will be returned to Us." (19:39) "We will inherit from him the things he is talking about and he will come to Us all alone." (19:81) "It is We who give life and cause to die and We are the Inheritor." (15:23)

Ad-Dahr: Time

Infinity of time, undifferentiated time from the beginning of the world to its end, extendedindivisible space of time. "The son of Adam vexes me when he curses Time, for I am Time. In My hand is the command. I cause the night and day to follow one upon the other." (al-Bukhari, Muslim, etc.)

Al-Qayyum: The Self-Sustaining

The Self-Sustaining, Self-Subsisting, Self-Existing, the One who is in charge of things and preserves them and manages them. Also the One whose power over His creatures is unchangeable and will never end. He requires nothing to exist. Al-Qayyum is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Allah. There is no god but Him, the Living, the Self-Sustaining." (2:255) "Faces will be humbled to the Living, the All-Sustaining." (20:108)


THE DIVINE NEAMES RELATED TO UNIQUENESS

Al-Ahad: The One

One, the Sole, the One who attribute is unity; the One in Essence who is without like, the One in attributes besides whom there is no other, or the One who is not susceptible of division into parts nor of duplication, the One who has ever been alone without companion. Al-Wahid is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "My fellow-prisoners, are many lords better, or Allah, the only One, the Conqueror?" (12:39) "Allah says, 'Do not take two gods. He is only One God. So dread Me alone.'" (16:51) "Your God is One." (37:4) "Say: "I am only a human being like yourselves. It is revealed to me that your god is One God. So let him who hopes to meet his Lord act rightly and not associate anyone with the worship of his Lord." (18:110)

Al-Wahid: The Unique

"Leave the person to I created on his own to Me alone." (74:11) Al-Ahad: Absolute Oneness. The Unique, One with No Other, the Sole. He who has ever been one and alone; the Indivisible, He who has no second. It is the closest to the Essence. Al-Ahad is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Say: He is Allah, Absolute Oneness." (112:1) 'Abdullah ibn Burayda related from his father that the Messenger of Allah heard a man say, "O Allah, I ask** You by the fact that I testify that You are Allah and there is no god but You the One, the Everlasting Support who did not beget and was not begotten and there is no one like Him." He said, "You have asked Allah by the Name by which He gives when asked, and by which He answers when He is called on by it."

Al-Fard: The Unequalled

The Single, the Sole, He who has no equal or like, the Unequalled.

Al-Witr: The Single

Not one of a pair, He who has no like or equal, without parallel. "Allah is single (witr) and loves odd numbers, so do the witr, people of the Qur'an." (hadith)


THE DIVINE NAMES RELATED TO PERFECTION

As-Subbuh, Al-Quddus: The All-Perfect, Utterly Pure

Subbuh is from Subhan, which is glorification and tanzih, disconnecting and elevating Him above anyothers. He is All-Perfect, All-Pure, All Glorious, far removed from everything evil and imperfect. Quddus means pure (tahir, munazzah), pure and free of any imperfection. He is far removed from every imperfection or impurity or from anything that would detract from His glory, and disconnected from every description perceived by the senses and thought, All-Holy, All-Pure, All-Perfect. Some say Subbuh denies imperfection and Quddus affirms perfection. Al-Quddus is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is Allah. There is no god but Him. He is the King, the Most Pure." (59:23) "Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth glorifies Allah, the King, the Most Pure, the Mighty, the Wise." (62:1)

As-Salaam: Perfect Peace

The Flawless, sound of every imperfection or deficiency, peace for His creatures. He is the Author of Safety, because He has rendered all His creatures safe from unsoundness and from injustice from Him, the Giver of peace. As-Salam is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is Allah. There is no god but Him. He is the King, the Most Pure, the Perfect Peace." (59:23)

At-Tahir : The Pure

Pure of every bad action and any imperfection or any corporal distinction.

Al- Muta'ali: The High Exalted

He Who is free of imperfection and none has power like His, He who is great or supremely great, above the lies of the liars, or the Most High, who is higher than every other high one, or He who has ascendancyover everything by His power or He who is exalted above the attributes of created things. Al-Muta'ali is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Allah knows what every female bears and every shrinking of the womb and every swelling. Everything has its measure with Him, the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, the Most Great, the High Exalted." (13:9-10) "May Allah be exalted above what they associate with Him!" (27:63)

Al-'Ali: The Most High

Above and beyond, the High above whom there is nothing higher. Al-'Ali is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Judgement belongs to Allah, the All-High, the All-Great." (40:11) "Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent." (42:4) "Glorify the name of your Lord, the Most High." (87:1) "Only desiring the Face of their Lord Most High." (92:20) "That is because Allah is the Real and what you call on apart from Him is false. Allah is the All-High, the All-Great." (22:60)

Ar-Rafi': The Exalter

Active sense of 'Ali. Great in attributes, Exalter of the degrees of dignity; the Lofty. He exalts by drawing people near to Him and by granting them good fortune. Ar-Rafi' is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Therefore call upon Allah, making your deen sincerely His, though the rejectors dislike it. He is the Raiser of ranks, the Possessor of the Throne. " (40:13-14)

Al-'Adhim: The Magnificent

Immense in the sense of size and volume--the greatest dimensions which encompass all, referring to His Essence and attributes; the Incomparably Great, Enormous who cannot be perceived by the intellect. Al-'Adhim is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent." (42:4) "Glorify then the name of your Lord, the Magnificent!" (56:77) "He used to not believe in Allah the Magnificent." (69:33)

Al-Kabir: The Incomparably Great

Like Al-'Adhim, but carries more of a sense of power. It refers to Essence; Incomparably Great, Most Great, Great beyond measure, the Majestic. It expresses the perfection of His Essence. Al-Kabir is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and what you call upon besides Him is falsehood. Allah is the All-High, the Most Great." (31:30) "Intercession with Him will be of no benefit except from someone who has His permission. So that when the terror has left their hearts they will say, 'What did your Lord say?' They will say, 'The Truth. He is the All-High, the Most Great.'" (34:23)

Al-Mutakabbir: The Supremely Great

Everything which is not Him is insignificant; He is the Great in Majesty or Most Excellent of beings, who has rights which no other possesses, the Possessor of power and excellence the like of which no other has; He who acts are good, exceeding the good acts of any other; the Majestic; He who disdains having the attributes of created beings; He who magnifies Himself against the proud among His creatures. Al-Mutakabbir is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is the King, the Most Pure, the Perfect Peace, the Trustworthy, the Safeguarder, the Almighty, the Compeller, the Supremely Great." (59:23)

Al-Jalil: The Majestic

The Majestic, Great in respect of rank or dignity. His order must be obeyed and carried out. This refers to His attributes. He is great in dignity because of His creating the great things which are indicative of Him, or because He is too great to be comprehended within limits or perceived by the senses. Al-Jalil is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.

Dhu'l-Jalal wa'l-Ikram: The Lord of Majesty and Generosity

The One who should be revered and honoured. Ibn 'Abbas said that "Dhu'l-Jalal" means "Full of Majesty." Dhu'l-Jalal wa'l-Ikram is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Blessed be the name of your Lord, Master of Majesty and Generosity." (55:77)

Al-Jamal: The Beautiful

Comely or goodly in deeds, or an Abundant bestower of good things. "Allah is Beautiful and loves beauty" (Muslim)

Al-Majid, Al-Majeed: The Noble, The Glorious

He who possesses superiority or abundance of good (the root of majd is a field full of pasturage), richness, and superabundance; the Glorious, Great, Great in Dignity, He who gives liberally or bountifully. He who is glorified for His deeds and nobleness and is vast in nobility and generosity. Al-Majid indicates honour in respect of the Essence, and Al-M’jid points to honour in respect of the attributes. Al-Majid and Al-Majid are two of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is Praiseworthy, All-Glorious." (11:72)

Al-Karim, Al-Akram: The Generous, The Most Generous

Worthy of praise, glorious; Generous (in the sense of abundant), Munificent, noble, precious, possessing generosity lacking in any lowness or baseness. Al-Karim is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "This is part of my Lord's favour to test me to see if I will give thanks or show ingratitude. Whoever gives thanks only does so to his own gain. Whoever is ungrateful, my Lord is Rich Beyond Need, Generous." (27:41) "Recite, and your Lord is the Most Generous." (96:3)

Al-Hamid: The Praiseworthy

Praised and praiseworthy. Al-Hamid is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Him. Allah is the Rich Beyond Need, the Praiseworthy." (22:62)

Al-Ghani: The Rich Beyond Need

The Self-Sufficient, Without need of anything, He who possesses all things. Al-Ghani is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "Everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah. Allah is the Rich Beyond Need, the Praiseworthy." (31:25) "Mankind! You are the poor in need of Allah whereas Allah is the Rich Beyond Need, the Praiseworthy." (35:14)

Al-Wajid: The Rich

Rich, Resourceful or Knowing, He who has no wants and lacks nothing. Al-Wajid is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "A thirsty man thinks it water but when he reaches it, he finds it nothing at all. But he finds Allah there and He will pay him his account in full." (24:38)

Az-Zahir: The Outward

The Ascendant and Predominant over things, or He who is known by inference of the mind from what appears to mankind of the effects of his actions and attributes. Az-Zahir is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward." (57:3)

Al-Batin: The Inward

He who knows the inward or intrinsic states or circumstances of thing, He who is veiled from eyes and imaginations of creatures. Al-Batin is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward." (57:3) Az-Zahir is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. "He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward." (57:3)

This article is courtesy of Aisha Beweley's Islamic Homepage.

 



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