Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
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By: Imam Ghazali (from al-Arba`in fi Usul al-Din)
Thul-Hijjah , 1436 : September 2015
Following is the slightly edited partial translation of Imam Ghazali's chapter on Al-Hajj in Ihya Al-Uloom ud-Din
Duties of Hajj
Two things are necessary for the health of Hajj-time and Islam. There are five conditions of Hajj which are obligatory:
1.To be a Muslim 2. To be a free man 3. To be intelligent and able 4. To be a major 5. To make Hajj in time.
One must be in sound health and the route must be safe and sound. He must have sufficient money to go and to be back from journey and for the maintenance of the family in the meantime. If a man is unable to make pilgrimage on account of his physical illness or bodily infirmity from which he has got no hope of recovery, he must send his representative with expense to make pilgrimage on his behalf. If a man dies before making pilgrimage in spite of his solvency, there will be grievous punishment for him..
Five compulsory duties of Hajj
1. To don Ihram, 2. To make Tawaf, 3. To make Sayee, 4. To wait at Arafat, 5. And then to shave hairs. These are also compulsory in Umrah except waiting at Arafat in Umrah.
Six wajibs of Hajj
1.To don Ihram at the appointed place 2.Throw pebbles at Mina 3.To wait at Arafat until sunset 4.To spend the night at Muzdalafah 5.To stay at Mina 6.To make Tawaf of the Ka'ba at the time of farewell.
Modes of Hajj.
Hajj can be performed in three modes- Ifrad, Qiran, and Tamattu.
The mode of making pilgrimage by Ifrad is the best. Ifrad is a kind of pilgrimage in which Ihram is donned with the sole intention of Hajj and not Umrah, and Ihram is remained after the necessary duties are performed. Then Ihram is put on for Umrah.
Prohibited Things in Hajj and Umrah
During Hajj and Umrah, it is prohibited to put on shirt, trousers, socks, turban. A wearing apparel without stitch and sandal may be used. One should not cover his head, as head is included within Ihram. A woman can wear stitched clothes but her face will remain uncovered.
Eight duties of Hajj from First to Last
There are eight duties when one comes out of his house until he dons Ihram.
He shall make Tawba, pay compensation to the oppressed and clear off his debts and give expense of maintenance for his family members till his return. He shall return the trusts entrusted to him and take legally earned money sufficient for his journey expenses till his return along with the additional sum for the poor, the destitute, and the weak. He shall spend something in charity before he starts
He shall seek a religious companion. He will seek your good and help you. He will remind you if you forget. Take farewell from relatives, friends, and neighbors, and seek their blessings and give your blessings to them by saying: I am entrusting to God your religion and your trust and the end of your actions. The Prophet used to pray for the man who wished to perform Hajj: May God keep you in His protection. May He give you provision of God-fear. May He forgive your sins, and may He keep your face towards good wherever you are.
Pray two rak'ats of prayer before starting from home with Fatiha and Surah Kafirun in the first raka’t and Surah Ikhlas in the second raka’t. When you finish your prayer, raise your two hands and seek blessings with this du'a: Oh God, you are my friend in this journey, you are my successor for my properties, children, and friends; save me and them all from calamities. O God, I seek from you in this journey virtues, God-fear, and actions pleasing to you. O God, make the world narrow for me, make my journey easy and give me provision of health of good body, religion, and safety of properties and take us for pilgrimage to Your house and for visiting the grave of your Prophet Muhammad (P.H). O God, I seek refuge in you from the troubles of journey, from change of conditions and from the evil looks of the family members and friends. O God, give us and them the blessings of your nearness, don't deprive us and them of your blessings and don't change your kindness on us and on them.
When you will come near the door of your house say: In the name of God, I rely on God; there is no power and might except in God. O Lord, I seek refuge to Thee that I may not be misguided, that I may not misguide anybody, that I may not slip or that I may not cause anybody to slip, that I may not be oppressed or that I may not oppress anybody, that nobody may ascribe ignorance to me, nor may I ascribe ignorance to anybody. I seek refuge to Thee from all these matters.
When you get on board of your conveyance, say: In the name of God and with God, God is the greatest. I rely on God, the Great, the Mighty. There is no power and no might except in God. Whatever God wills comes into being. God has made this conveyance subservient to us. We shall have to return to our Lord. When you sit on the conveyance, recite seven times: All praise is due to god who showed me path for it. We would not have found guidance if God did not show us guidance. O God, Thou art our carrier on backs and Thou art our helper in all our affairs.
When you get on a high place on the way, recite Takbir thrice and then recite: O God, Thy honor is above all honors, Thine is all praise and all glory. When you get down, recite Tasbih.
Duties from Miqat to Entry into Mecca
Take bath with the intention of donning Ihram, comb your hairs and head, manicure your nails, clip your moustache, and do everything as described in the chapter on purity and cleanliness.
Put on two pieces of unsewn Ihram cloth. White cloth is dearest to God. Use scent on body and cloth.
Take journey if your walk on foot. Now make niyyat of Ifrad, Qiran, or Tamattu Hajj and say Talbiyah-present to Thee, O God, present to Thee, there is no partner for Thee, al praise and gifts are for Thee, there is no partner for Thee.
When you enter into Ihram, recite the following: O God, I make niyyat for pilgrimage. O God, make it easy for me, help me in fulfilling its duties, accept it from me. There are other invocations also.
It is commendable to recite Talbiah in a loud voice at the time of ascending, descending, riding on conveyance. It is as follows: O God, I am present to Thee, I am present to Thee. There is no partner for Thee. All praise, gifts, and lordship are for Thee. Thou hast got no partner. Whenever anything astonished the Prophet, he used to say: Labbaik, the life of the next world is true life.
The Prophet said: Whoso visits my grave after my death has met me as it were during my lifetime. He also said: He, who does not visit me inspite of having means, oppresses me. He also said: Whoso does not come to me except with the object of visiting me, it is the duty of God that I become his intercessor. He also said: He, who wishes to visit Medina, should send much blessings upon the Prophet on his way to Medina. When the walls and trees of Medina fall to his eyes, he will recite: O God, this is the sanctuary of Thy Apostle. So make it a shield for saving me from Hell and a safe place from punishment and bad account. When you enter Medina, recite the following: In the name of God and upon the religion of Apostle of God. O Lord, enter me a true entry and take me out a true taking out and send for me from Thee a strong helper. Then pray two rak'ats after entering the mosque and then wait near the grave of the Holy Prophet and send profuse Durood and blessings on him as prescribed. The Prophet said: The place between my grave and pulpit is one of the gardens and my pulpit is upon my fountain.
Then visit Jannatul Baqiy, the place of burials of the martyrs and of Hadrat Osman, Imam Hasan Imam Zayn-al Abedin, Imam Baquir, Imam Ja’far As- Sadiq, Hadrat Fatima. Then observe prayer at the Qubba mosque as the Prophet said: He who comes out of his house and comes to the mosque of Qubba and says prayer there, the rewards of an Umrah is written for him. The Prophet said: He who can die at Medina should do it, as I shall be an intercessor for one who dies at Medina. Then visit the grave of the Prophet when leaving Medina.