Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
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Thul-Hijjah , 1436 : September 2015
Dhulhijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar. Many great blessings are stored in this month. The great festival of Eid-ul-Adha is celebrated on the 10th day of this month by Muslims around the world on the basis of local moonsighting in their respective regions. This Eid commemorates the unparalleled sacrifice offered by the Prophet Sayyidina Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, when he, in pursuance to a command of Allah conveyed to him in a dream, prepared himself to slaughter his beloved son, Sayyidina Isma'il, Alayhi Salam, and actually did so but, Allah Almighty, after testing his submission, sent down a sheep and saved his son from the slaughter.
Our beloved Prophet Sayyidina Muhammad Sallal-lahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam revived this memory by celebrating Eid -ul- Adha during three days of Dhulhijjah, namely, the 10th, 11th and 12th of the month. It is from that time onwards that the sacrifice (Qurbani) of an animal became a duty to be performed by every well to do Muslim. Qurbani is a demonstration of total submission to Allah and a proof of complete obedience to Allah's will or command. The Eid-ul-Adha feast begins on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah with an early morning Eid prayer preferably in an open ground or field in which 2 raka’at prayer is offered followed by the 2 sermons. After that Muslim greet each other and those who may afford, go to offer the sacrifice and others start feasting in their homes. The following information sheds more light on different aspects of the festival and the virtues of Dhul Hijjah.
Sacrifice of Eid-ul-Adha according to Shafi’i view
The sacrifice is only a confirmed Sunnah for morally responsible (mukallaf) Muslims who are able to sacrifice. Able to sacrifice means that they own enough to buy a sacrificial animal plus enough to fulfill their own needs and the needs of everyone they are obliged to support on the day of Eid and the three days that follow it. It is not required from a Muslim who is not morally responsible, such as a child or someone who is insane. The confirmed-ness (takeed) of the Sunnah is of collective nature (ala-al-kifaya). If the head of the household performs it, it is no longer a confirmed Sunnah for everyone he is obliged to support (such as his wife and children), although if they choose to perform it anyway, it is praiseworthy. (Eiyanatu-l-Talibin, 2.330; al-Yaqut al-Nafis fi Madhhab Ibn Idris, 204)
Sacrifice of Eid-ul-Adha according to Hanafi view
Every adult Muslim, male or female, who owns 613.35 grams of silver or its equivalent in money, personal ornaments, stock-in-trade or any other form of wealth which is surplus to his basic needs, is under an obligation to offer a Qurbani. Each adult member of a family who owns the above mentioned amount must perform his own Qurbani separately. If the husband owns the required quantity, but the wife does not, the Qurbani obligatory on the husband only and vice-versa. If both of them have the prescribed amount of wealth, both should perform Qurbani separately. However, if a husband or a father, apart from offering his own Qurbani, gives another Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his children, he can do so with their permission.
Distribution of the Qurbani Meat: A brief review
Up to seven persons together may sacrifice a cow or camel, its meat should be distributed equally among its owners by weighing the meat strictly and not at random or by mere guess. Sheep and goats cannot be shared by multiple people, since they only fulfill the Sunnah of sacrifice for one person. Although the person offering a Qurbani can keep all its meat for his own use, yet, it is preferable to distribute one-third among the poor, another one-third among his relatives and friends and then, keep the rest for his personal family consumption.
Modes of Hajj.
Hajj can be performed in three modes- Ifrad, Qiran, and Tamattu.
The mode of making pilgrimage by Ifrad is the best. Ifrad is a kind of pilgrimage in which Ihram is donned with the sole intention of Hajj and not Umrah, and Ihram is remained after the necessary duties are performed. Then Ihram is put on for Umrah.
Prohibited Things in Hajj and Umrah
During Hajj and Umrah, it is prohibited to put on shirt, trousers, socks, turban. A wearing apparel without stitch and sandal may be used. One should not cover his head, as head is included within Ihram. A woman can wear stitched clothes but her face will remain uncovered.
The following acts are Sunnah on the day of Eid-ul- Adha:
It is narrated by Hadrath Abu Huraira that the Holy Prophet used to go to offer Eid Salaah using one path and would return (home) from another. (Tirmizi, Hadith No. 541, V2, P69)
The Takbirs of Tashriq The first of the takbirs of tashriq is after salat al-fajr on the Day of `Arafah. According to Abu Hanifah, the last of it is after salat al `asr on the [first] Day of Sacrifice. Abu Yusuf and Muhammad said: [it lasts] until salat al-`asr of the last of the Days of Tashriq. 2. The takbir is after the fard prayers, and it is that one say: Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illallahu Wallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa-Lillahil-Hamd.
First Ten Days of Dhulhijjah & The Fast of 'Arafah on the 9th of Dhulhijjah
The 9th day of Dhulhijjah is called 'Yawmul - Arafah' (The Day of 'Arafah). This is the date when the Hujjaj (Haji pilgrims) assemble on the plain of 'Arafat, where they perform the most essential part of the prescribed duties of hajj, namely, the 'Wuqoof of'Arafat (the stay in 'Arafat). For those not performing hajj it is mustahabb (desirable) to fast on this day according to their own local lunar calendar based on the local sighting of the moon. The fast of 'Yawmul 'Arafah' has been emphasized by the Holy Prophet (saws) as a mustahabb (desirable) act. “Fasting on the Day of 'Arafah absolves the sins for two years: the previous year and the coming year”. (Hadith-Bukhari)